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Poster: David KUIJT <kuijt@umiacs.umd.edu>

On Thu, 10 Dec 1998, Donald Wagner wrote:

> His Excellency is correct.
> The Berbers were also considered tribal(less civilized) by the Arabs,
> but they did well among the basques, and the remains of the visigoths.

Before anyone spots the error in what I wrote, let me point it out 
myself: I wrote
> > civil wars that split Andalusian Spain into warring Berber and Arab
> > principalities were a major cause of the fall of Andalusia in the 12th
> > century.

Actually, the fall of Andalusia was much more complex -- the civil wars
and warring principalities part was in the 11th century; in the 12th
century the Christian Kingdoms had gained a significant foothold, and most
of Islamic Spain (the lower half, at that point) was united under the
Marinids (who were primarily Berber).  It wasn't until the 13th century
that Andalusia was completely eliminated, leaving the Emirate of Grenada
which survived strong and relatively untouched until civil wars starting
around 1480-1485 weakened it sufficiently for its conquest (which
still took a decade).


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