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Re: Displaying heraldry

Poster: vnend%nudity@Princeton.EDU (David W. James)

> Poster: Beth Morris <bmorris@access.digex.net>

> True enough.  And Lords outranked Knights, and Master/Mistress was a
> term for commoners.  

> Keilyn

	This is a case of over-broad reactionism.  As we will see below, the
use of 'master' to refer to nobility, knights and people both Learned
Teachers (directly relatable to our Laurels) and to functionaries of the
crown or other nobles (our Pelicans) is historically, and, more
specifically, medievally correct.

	The Oxford English Dictionary 2nd Ed. has, in part, this to say about
the history and use of the word 'master':

	****General usage****
  I A man having control or authority.
  1 a gen.  One having direction or control over the action of another
or others; a director, leader, chief, commander; a ruler, governor.
  C. 1000 LFRIC Exod. i. 11 Witudlice he sette him weorka m&asg.estras
[Vulg. magistros operum], pt hi&asg.  &asg.ehyndon mid hefe&asg.um
byrdenum. C. 1175 Lamb. Hom. 43 And heore [the 12 `master devils'] a3ene
pine neure nere pe lesse pah heo meistres weren. A. 1240 Wohunge in
Cott. Hom. 281 Hwen pu wes henged bituhhe twa peofes, As hwa se seie, He
pis is mare pen peof, And for pi as hare meister he henges ham bituhhen.
C. 1250 Gen. & Ex.  4072 De mestres of dise hore-men. A. 1300 Cursor M.
6408 Moyses pan cald sir iosue And mad him maister o pat semble. 13..
Sir Beues (MS. A) 1643 And, for is meisters [i.e. the two jailers] wer
bope ded, Pre daies after he ne et no bred. C. 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron.
Wace (Rolls) 13084 Pe Bretons..toke Preton, pe maister Romayn.  C. 1450
Merlin xxvii. 549 These foure hit herden that were maistris of the hoste
and conditoures. 1596 DALRYMPLE tr.  Leslie's Hist. Scot. I. 104 Quhen
thay sett vpon the ennimie..thay pas in ordour, following thair mais-

  c Applied to a sovereign in relation to his ministers or officers.
Now chiefly Hist.
  1470-85 MALORY Arthur IV. xxiii. 151 The woful knyghte told her how
his mayster and lorde was bitrayed. 1596 DALRYMPLE tr. Leslie's Hist.
Scot. I. 96 Thay ar bent mair willinglie..gif thair maistir commande
thame, to seditione. 1601 SHAKS. All's Well IV. v. 75 The King my mas-
ter. 1611 BIBLE 1 Sam. xxiv. 6 The Lord forbid that I should doe this
thing vnto my master the Lords Anoynted.   

  5 a The male head of a house or household.
  1536 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. II. II. 80 Mr. Shelton saythe he es
Master of thys Hows. 1577-87 HOLINSHED Hist.  Scot. 278/1 The people
generallie lamenting his death with no lesse sorow..than as is seene in
a priuat house for the deceasse of the welbeloued maister and owner
thereof. 1611 BIBLE Exod. xxii. 8 The master of the house shall be
brought vnto the Iudges. 

	****As relates to the Order of the Laurel****
  II A teacher; one qualified to teach.
  11 A man to whose care a child or children are committed for purposes
of instruction; a tutor, preceptor; in later use chiefly a teacher in a
school, a schoolmaster; also, a professional teacher of some special
subject, as an art or a language.
  C. 888 K. LFRED Boeth. xxix. S2 Se unrihtwisa Neron wolde hatan his
a&asg.enne ma&asg.ister [orig. prceptoremque suum]..acwellan. A. 1225
Ancr. R. 64 Sum is so wel ilered..pet heo wolde pet he wuste hit; pe sit
& speked..& bicumed meister, pe schulde beon ancre. 13.. K. Alis. 665
The sevethen maister taught his pars. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) VI.
435 Pe childes maister si3 pat, and slow pe sewere anon. C. 1430 LYDG.
Min. Poems (Percy Soc.) 185 It sittethe a maister..at large to teche his
lesson. 1596 DALRYMPLE tr. Leslie's Hist. Scot. VIII.  126 He..was
elected maister to the prince. 1599 SHAKS., etc.  Pass. Pilgr. xv, It
was a Lording's daughter..That liked of her maister as well as well
might be. 
  12 He whose disciple one is; the teacher (in religion, philosophy,
art, science, or scholarship) from whom one has chiefly learned, or
whose doctrines one accepts.  the (our, my, his, etc.) Master: often
applied to Christ, with mixture of sense 3.
  C. 1200 ORMIN 12898 Patt ta twa Lerninngcnihhtess Herrdenn whatt
te&asg.&asg.re ma&asg.&asg.stre spacc Off Christ [etc.]. A. 1300 Cursor
M. 20915 His maister..And he aght noght haf al a dome, For he was noght
worpi per-till. 1382 WYCLIF John iii. 10 Art thou a maistir in Israel,
and knowist not thes thingis? 1412-20 LYDG.  Troy-bk. end (Schick), My
maister Chaucer. 1529 MORE Dyaloge II. Wks. 179/2 Yet bee there not
onely as many sectes almoste as men, but also the maisters them selfe
chaunge theyr mindes and theyr oppynions euery daye. 1533 GAU Richt Vay
(1888) 25 We neid noder to seik or leir of oder vane maisters quhat guid
warkis we suld dw.  
  13 a A man of approved learning, a scholar of authority. Obs.
  A. 1225 Leg. Kath. 120 Modi meistres & fele fondeden hire ofte o swide
fele halue, for to undernimen hire. A. 1300 Cursor M.  11462 And did he
suith to samen call Pe maisters of his kingrik all, And fraind at paim
if pai wist, Quar suld he be born, pat crist. 1377 LANGL. P. Pl. B. x.
384 Maistres pat of goddis mercy techen men and prechen. 1456 SIR G.
HAYE Law Arms (S.T.S.) 179 And as for me and othir maisteris and doc-
touris, me think this the rycht oppin.  1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. V.
lxxviii. S1 Terming..Scribes and interpreters of the law, Masters.
  14 In academic sense, = med.L. magister: One who has received a
specific degree, originally conveying authority to teach in the univer-
sity. In English use before the 19th c. confined to the Faculty of Arts
(the corresponding title in the other faculties being doctor): the full
designation of the graduate is in L. artium magister, in Eng. Master of
Arts (formerly -of Art), denoted by the abbreviation M.A. or (now
rarely, exc. in the U.S.) A.M.  In more recent times the degrees of Mas-
ter of Science (M.Sc.), Master in or of Surgery (Magister Chirurgi,
M.Ch.), etc. have also been awarded.

	****The sense most of us think of it as having been used****
  15 a Originally, a workman who is qualified by training and experience
to teach apprentices and to carry on his trade on his own account.
(Chiefly in appositional combs., as master carpenter etc., for which see
25 d.)  Hence, (a) a workman who is in business on his own account, as
distinguished from a journeyman; in modern use merged in sense 3; (b) a
workman of approved skill, one who thoroughly knows his trade; also
transf. and fig.
  C. 1400 Destr. Troy 8733 Po maisturs gert make a meruelous toumbe. C.
1489 CAXTON Sonnes of Aymon x. 265, I sholde goo gyve you suche a
stroke..that ye sholde saye it is a stroke of a maister.  1585 T. WASH-
INGTON tr. Nicholay's Voy. IV. xxiv. 140 An ingenious maister..proposed
vnto him [Alexander] that..he would make to be cut in humain figure, the
mount of Athos.

  b Used predicatively without article (quasi-adj.) with the sense
`highly skilled'.  Const. inf.
  1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 9325 Mayster he is to bitraye, is word is al
falshede. C. 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints xix. (Cristofore) 84 Pe dewil is mare
master pan pu. C. 1489 CAXTON Sonnes of Aymon xxiv. 499, I am mayster
for to begge brede. 

  16 a An artist of distinguished skill, one of those who are regarded
as models of excellence in their art.  old master: a `master' who lived
before the period accounted `modern'; chiefly applied to painters from
the 13th to the 16th or 17th century.
  1533, 1651 [see FENCE sb. 2]. 1598 R.  HAYDOCKE tr. Lomazzo's Art
Paint. I. 23 Raphaell, Perino del Vaga,..and all other famous Maisters.

	****As used for Knights and Officials (Pelicans??)****
  III As a specific title of office.
  17 The head or presiding officer of many societies or institutions:
e.g. of certain colleges (in Oxford, Cambridge, and elsewhere), guilds,
corporations, livery companies, etc. (in some of which, however, the
title is given not to the head but to the members of an administrative
body subordinate to him), hospitals, etc.  Formerly also used for
GRAND-MASTER, great master (see 20), the title of the head of a military**<
order.  Also with postfixed adj. (after med.L.) in the titles of digni-***<
taries of monastic and other religious organizations, as master-general,**<
master provincial.
  Master of Prussia (Pruse, Pruseland): the grand-master of the Teutonic**<
Order.  Master of the Temple: (a) Hist. the grand-master of the Knights***<
Templar; (b) the principal clergyman of the Temple Church, London,
appointed by royal letters patent.
  1389 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 4 Pe maistres & bretheren tofore said.  1427
in Heath Grocers' Comp. (1869) 4 John Melborne, John Olyve, Maistres.
1430-1 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 370/2 Master and Prestes of the Chapell. 1442
Rolls of Parlt. V. 65/2 The Kyng wille and is disposed, to sende his
Letters to the Maistr' of Pruce. 1463-4 Rolls of Parlt. 502/2 Every
Mayer, where Mayer is; every Maister, where Maister is, where noo Mayer
is. 1550 CROWLEY Way to Wealth B j, A Maister of an house in Oxforde or
Cambridge. 1560 DAUS tr.  Sleidane's Comm. 48 b, Albert of Brandenburge,
master of Pruselande [orig. 95 Prussi Magister]. 1568 ASCHAM Scholem.
II. (Arb.) 143 Pelting matters, soch as in London commonlie cum to the
hearing of the Masters of Bridewell. 1586 Reg. Privy Council Scot.  IV.
74 Maisteris Andro and James Melvillis, maisteris of the New College.

   19 a In many designations of officials having duties of the nature of
control, superintendence, or safe-keeping, as Master of Assay = ASSAY-
MASTER; M. of the Coin = M. of the Mint; M. of the (King's, Queen's)
Household (also Sc. Master Household), an officer under the Steward of
the Royal Household; M. of the Jewel-house, the keeper of the Crown
Jewels in the Tower of London; M. of the (King's) Music, an officer of
the Royal Household, the conductor of the King's band; M. of the Posts
(see quot. 1706); M. of the Robes, of the Wardrobe, the keeper of the
`great' wardrobe of the King, Queen, or other exalted personage; Master
of (the) Works or (now dial.) Work, an official who superintends build-
ing operations.
  For Master of Ceremonies, M. of the Mint, M. of Misrule, M. of the
Revels, M. of the Rolls, see the second sbs.
  1423 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 256/2 The forsaid Maistre of the koyne.  1423
Rolls of Parlt.,  IV. 256/2 The Maister of the mynte aforeseid. 1454
Rolls of Parlt. V. 273/2 Bi th' oversight of the Maistir of the Werks
there. 1528 St. Papers Hen. VIII, VII. 61 The Maister of the Postes
shall gyve horses to noo man, oonles [etc.]. 1529 in Proc. Soc. Ant.
Scot. XXX. (1896) 53 Ane lettre..makand hym maister of wark within the
castell of Striveling. 1548 in Ellis Orig.  Lett. Ser. III. III. 297 The
M[r] housholde to the Quene. A.  1578 LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot.
(S.T.S.) I 334 Maister houshald witht mony wther offeceris. 1597-8 Act
39 Eliz. c 7 S12 Maister of the Juell House. 1597-8 Act 39 Eliz.,  c 7
S12 Master of the Warderobe. 

  b Mil. in various titles of command, as Master of the Armoury, M. of
the Artillery; Master (General) of the Ordnance, the controller of the
Ordnance and Artillery (subsequently, the head of the Board of Ord-
nance).  Also (in translations from Latin of Fr.) master of chivalry.
  1382 WYCLIF Gen. xxxvii. 36 Putiphar, the geldyng of Pharao, the may-
ster of chyualrye. 1485 Rolls of Parlt. VI. 354/2 The Offices of Maister
of oure Ordinaunces and Maister of oure Armery.  1489 CAXTON Faytes of
A. I. vii, The souerayn maystre of the chyualrye of the prynce. 1512
Aberdeen Reg. (1844) I. 83 Maisteris of the said artail3erie. 1533 BEL-
LENDEN Livy II. xviii. (S.T.S.) 159 Spurius cassius [was] pe first mais-
ter of cheuelrie. 1548 PATTEN Exp. Scot. A i b, Syr Fraunces Flemmynge
knight, master of the ordinaunce. 1597-8 Act 39 Eliz. c. 7 S12 The Mais-
ter and Leiftenaunte of the Ordynance,..Maister of the Armory, [and oth-
  20 great master.   = GRAND-MASTER 1 and 2.
  1524 in Hakluyt's Voy. II. I. 86 The massife of Spaine made by the
reuerend lord great master Mery d'Amboise. 1531 CROMWELL in Merriman
Life & Lett. (1902) I. 341 His Highnes also woll that ye shall moue the
gret maister [of France] in that behalf.  1547 EARL SUSSEX in Ellis
Orig. Lett. Ser. I. II.  137 The Lord St. John lord president of the
Counsaile and Gret Master.  1577 F. de L'isle's Legendarie A viij b, The
Constable at that time great master and Marshal of France entreated for

	****As a title.  Note especially 21 and 22 as to social rank.****
  IV As a title of rank or compliment.
  21 Used vocatively as a term of respect or politeness. a sing.  = Sir.
Now only in uneducated use. b pl. (in later times always my masters)  =
Sirs, gentlemen.  Now arch. or rhetorical, chiefly in ironical or der-
isive context.
  In the first quot. rendering L. magister, prob. applied to Nectanabus
as being a man of learning.
  1340-70 Alisaunder 587 Pe Queene..quikly saide, `Maister, welcome,
ywis; will[e] yee sitte?' 1536 in Wriothesley Chron.  (Camden) I. 39 The
Lord of Rochford..sayde these wordes..on the scaffolde..Maisters all, I
am come hither not to preach and make a sermon.  1563 Reg. Privy Council
Scot. I. 244 Sa hes it plesit the Quenis Majestie, my maisters, to grant
the lik commissioun. 1591 SHAKS.  1 Hen. VI, I. i. 152 Farwell my Mas-
ters, to my Taske will I.  1602 SHAKS. Ham. II. ii. 440 Y'are welcome
Masters, welcome all. 1608 MIDDLETON (title) A mad World, my Masters.
  22 A title prefixed to the name or designation of a man.  Originally
used only in speaking of or to a man either of high social rank or of
learning (sometimes, esp. in Scotland, applied spec. to a Master of
Arts), but gradually extended in application.  In ordinary use now only
dial., but in literature sometimes arch. or Hist.; otherwise superseded
by MR. pronounced ('mIst&schwa.(r)).
  The obscured pronunciation resulting from proclitic use doubtless
began while the written form master was still commonly employed.  Before
the end of the 17th c. the abbreviation Mr. (originally only one among
many others used for the word in all applications) had come to be res-
tricted to the use in which the pronunciation was obscured, and to be
the only permitted mode of writing the word in that use.  Thenceforward
master and Mr. were practically two words, distinct both in function and
in form.  In this Dictionary the abbreviation MR., in all its historical
varieties of use, is treated in its alphabetical place.
  a Prefixed to a surname or a Christian name.
  Down to the 16th c. or a little later, master could be prefixed to the
name of a knight or a bishop; at an earlier period it was freely used
with the names of personages of ancient history and ancient writers.
Some modern dialects have only one form for Master and Mr. as prefixed
titles; others have both prefixes with a difference of function, Mr.
being the superior title.  (See E.D.D.)
  1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 8722 Maister willam gyffard he 3ef pe bis-
sopriche Of winchestere & maister anselin pe erche-bissopriche. A.  1300
Cursor M. 6936 Fosterd he was And lered wit maister moyses.  C. 1330 R.
BRUNNE Chron. Wace (Rolls) 57 One Mayster Wace pe Frankes telles, Pe
Brute, all pat pe Latyn spelles. 1425 W.  PASTON in P. Lett. I. 19 Mais-
ter John Ixworthe told me that he hadde lettres fro a frende of yowres.
1459 Aberdeen Reg. (1844) I. 22 Maister John of Levington, vicar of
Inuerugy. 1532 in Ellis Orig.  Lett. Ser. III. II. 252, I have harde hym
soo often breke Master Precyens hede. 1563-83 FOXE A. & M. (ed. 4) 1770
Maister Latymer encouraged Maister Ridley when both were at the stake.
1570 Ane Trag. 8 in Satir. Poems Reform. x. 82 Schir Morpheus..led me
captiue vnto Maister Slumber. 1579 SPENSER (title) The Shepheardes
Calender... Entitled to..M. Philip Sidney. 
  23 a In early use (my) young master, little master, occur as designa-
tions applied by servants and inferiors generally to the boys and young
men of the families of their superiors.  App. as a development from this
mode of expression, the word master (after the phonetic separation of
Mr.) came to be the usual prefix to the name of a young gentleman not
considered old enough to be entitled to be called `Mr.'.  Hence occas.
masters and misses = young people.  Also master-miss: an effeminate
  1563-83 FOXE A. & M. (ed. 4) 1596 The time was thought to be nie, that
this young Maister [Queen Mary's expected child] should come into the
world. 1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. II. ii. 52 Talke you of yong Maister Laun-
celet? 1601 B. JONSON Poetaster I. i, Young master, master Ovid, doe you

  24 The heir-apparent to a Scottish peerage (below the rank of earl;
formerly, below that of marquis) is in many instances known as The Mas-
ter of--; the specific designation being usually identical with the
baronial title of the family.
  1489 Ld. Treas. Acc. Scotl. (1877) I. 107 The Maister of Crafurde.
1530 Aberdeen Reg. (1844) I. 139, I Johne Lord Forbes..becummiss
souerte..for myself, Johne Maister of Forbes, my sone [etc.]. 1548 PAT-
TEN Exped. Scot. B vii, Anderwyke perteined to the lorde of Hambleton,
and was kept by hys sonne & heyre (whom, of custume they call the Master
of Hambleton). 1569 Reg. Privy Council Scot.  II. 2 Johnne Maister of
Grahame nepote and heyre to the Erll of Montroise.  1569 Reg. Privy
Council Scot.,  II. 2 William Maister Marschell sone to the Erll Mar-
schell. 1569 Reg. Privy Council Scot. 37 Quhilk Andro..presentit to him
ane writting of the Maister of Marschellis.  1584 Reg. Privy Council
Scot. III. 644 M[r]. Thomas Lyoun, Master of Glammis.   

	So.  Still think it isn't appropriate for our three orders of Mastery?

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